The Republic of Texas: A Forgotten Chapter in American History

The Annexation of Texas: A Catalyst for Manifest Destiny

The annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845 marked a significant event in American history. However, the path to annexation was a complex one, intertwined with the rich historical tapestry of Spanish Texas, Mexican Texas, the Texas Revolution, and the establishment of the independent Republic of Texas.

The Republic of Texas was an independent country in North America from 1836 to 1846, situated between Mexico and the United States. Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution, which concluded in 1836. However, Mexico did not recognize Texas as an independent nation. In 1837, the United States acknowledged Texas as a separate country but did not incorporate it into the U.S. until 1845.

The Republic of Texas: A Forgotten Chapter in American History
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When Texas joined the United States in 1845, it brought along disagreements about its borders with Mexico. The main disagreement was about which river, the Rio Grande or the Nueces, should be recognized as the border. These border disputes became a problem that the United States had to deal with after Texas became a state.

On February 19, 1846, Texas officially became a state in the United States. This move resulted in conflicts with Mexico, eventually leading to the Mexican–American War, which spanned from 1846 to 1848.

In this article, we will delve into the consecutive narrative that led to Texas becoming the 28th state of the United States, exploring the cultural, political, and military dynamics that shaped this pivotal moment.

Spanish Texas:

The story of Texas begins in the early 16th century when Spanish explorers, most notably Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, encountered indigenous tribes in the region. Spanish colonization efforts in the area commenced in the late 17th century, with missions and forts established to secure territory and convert Native Americans to Christianity. Under Spanish rule, Texas experienced limited population growth and economic development.

Adams-Onís Treaty: Resolving Texas' Status and Border with Louisiana

During the late Spanish colonial era, Texas was part of the Provincias Internas during the Spanish colonial era. It's called Spanish Texas in history. Spain said it belonged to them, but they didn't officially make it a colony until the French got interested in Fort St. Louis. The native people already lived there, and some missionaries visited in the 1690s–1710s before San Antonio was set up as a permanent town.

The Republic of Texas: A Forgotten Chapter in American History
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Texas didn't have many Europeans because it was far from the main places in New Spain, and it didn't have things like silver that people wanted. Still, Spain had a small army there to protect Catholic missionaries and to keep an eye on the French in Louisiana and the British in North America.

In 1762, France gave up most of its land in North America, including Texas, to Spain. Later, from 1799 to 1803, when Napoleon was in charge in France, Spain gave Louisiana back to France, and then France sold it to the United States.

In 1819, there was a treaty called the Onís-Adams Treaty, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty. The United States and Spain made an agreement. They decided where the western authority of the land bought in the Louisiana Purchase would be, and Spain gave up its rights to the Pacific Northwest. In exchange, the United States agreed that Texas belonged to Spain. This treaty was confirmed in 1821. It said Spanish Florida now belonged to the United States and made a clear line between Texas and Louisiana.

In this background, Louisiana Purchase was a deal between the United States and France on April 30, 1803. They bought a lot of land—828,000 square miles to be exact—west of the Mississippi River. The cost was $15 million, which meant the U.S. paid about 4 cents for each acre of land. This deal helped the United States grow a lot by doubling its size and stretching the country farther to the west.

Gutiérrez-Magee and James Long: Pioneering Efforts for Texas Independence

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, there were several attempts by Anglo Americans to establish an independent Republic of Texas. The first significant effort was the Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition in 1813. Led by Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and Augustus Magee, a group of Anglo Americans fought alongside Mexico against Spanish rule. They achieved victories against the Spanish governor but were eventually defeated at the Battle of Medina, ending the short-lived Republic of Texas.

After a six-year stoppage, another attempt was made in 1819 when James Long invaded Spanish Texas. Long declared a new government, issued a declaration of independence, and established trading outposts. However, the expedition suffered from internal conflicts, lack of provisions, and betrayal by Jean Lafitte, a Spanish spy. Spanish troops arrived, and Long's forces were defeated. Long made another unsuccessful attempt in 1820 but was ultimately captured, taken prisoner, and later killed in Mexico City.

These early expeditions, though unsuccessful, played a role in shaping the discontent and desire for independence that would eventually lead to the Texas Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of Texas in 1836.

Texas in Trouble: Tensions and Changes after Independence from Spain

After Texas became independent from Spain in 1821, it became a part of the newly formed Mexican Republic. American leader Stephen F. Austin brought a group of settlers called the Old Three Hundred to Texas. They made a deal to start colonies and bring their slaves. But problems came up between Mexican leaders and the American settlers.

They argued about immigration and slavery. More Americans moved to Texas to build a plantation-based economy. In 1830, the Mexican President said no more Americans could come to Texas. This made the settlers upset. The Convention of 1832 was the first step towards the Texas Revolution.

Texas Revolution:

The Texas Revolution was a rebellion that took place from October 2, 1835, to April 21, 1836. It involved American colonists and Hispanic Texans fighting against the Mexican government in the state of Coahuila y Tejas (now part of the U.S. state of Texas) that resulted in Texas's independence from Mexico and the founding of the Republic of Texas (1836–45).

The Republic of Texas: A Forgotten Chapter in American History
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By 1834, the number of American immigrants in Texas far exceeded the Mexican population. Tensions arose as the Mexican government increased its military presence and implemented policies that the settlers viewed as oppressive. Disputes over issues such as immigration restrictions, local governance, and the abolition of slavery led to growing discontent among the Texians (as the American settlers in Texas were called).

In 1835, the Texians rebelled against Mexican rule, starting the Texas Revolution. Important events occurred during this time, including the Battle of Gonzales, where Texians defended a cannon from Mexican forces, and the renowned Battle of the Alamo, where a small group of Texian defenders bravely resisted Mexican troops for thirteen days before being defeated. Ultimately, the Texians achieved victory at the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836, led by General Sam Houston, which secured their independence from Mexico.

Independent Republic:

Following the Texian victory, Texas declared its independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836 with the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Texas until it joined the United States as a state in 1845. Sam Houston was elected as the first president of the new nation. However, the Republic of Texas faced numerous challenges, including financial difficulties, border disputes with Mexico, and the lack of international recognition.

Annexation by the U.S.:

The annexation of Texas by the United States was a topic of intense debate and controversy. The United States had shown interest in acquiring Texas due to its vast territory and potential economic benefits. However, concerns about the expansion of slavery and the potential for war with Mexico hindered immediate annexation.

In 1844, James K. Polk was elected president with a pro-annexation stance. After negotiations and a joint resolution passed by the U.S. Congress, Texas was admitted to the Union on December 29, 1845, as the 28th state. The annexation of Texas heightened tensions between the United States and Mexico, ultimately leading to the Mexican-American War in 1846.

The Republic of Texas: A Forgotten Chapter in American History
Image Source: Google, Image By: Wikimedia Commons


The annexation of Texas in 1845 solidified the United States' territorial expansion, but it also had significant implications for issues such as slavery, manifest destiny, and U.S.-Mexican relations. In this context, Manifest Destiny was the belief widely held in 19th-century America that it was the nation's destiny and right to expand its territory from coast to coast, spreading democracy, civilization, and American values across the continent.  

The complex history of Spanish Texas, Mexican Texas, the Texas Revolution, and the establishment of the independent Republic of Texas laid the foundations for Texas becoming an integral part of the United States. Understanding this historical narrative provides valuable insights into the ongoing debates surrounding the Lone Star State.

To understand more openly, Texas received the nickname "Lone Star State" because of its flag, which features a single star. The flag was adopted after Texas gained independence from Mexico in 1836. Texas spent ten years as an independent republic before joining the United States. The flag symbolizes the state's pride and independent spirit, which is still celebrated today.