The Calendar of 354: Uncovering the Earliest Evidence of Christmas in Rome

The Calendar of 354: Tracing the Origins of Christmas in Rome

Christmas is a great worldwide celebration that happens every year on December 25. It's not just about presents and decorations; it's got a deep history and religious meaning. This celebration is super joyful for Christians because they're honoring the birth of Jesus. It's like the main and happiest ceremony in their faith!

The earliest evidence of Christ's birth being associated with this date can be traced back to the Calendar of 354, a text believed to have been written in Rome around AD 336. It was during the 4th century, according to early Roman history, that December 25 was attributed to the birth of Jesus Christ. In this article, we explore the first documentary sign of Christmas celebration in Rome and its significance in shaping the modern observance of this joyous holiday.

💻Table of Contents:

  1. Christmas through the Centuries: Joyous Traditions and Celebrations Unveiled
  2. From Saturnalia to Christmas: The Evolution of Midwinter Celebrations
  3. Unraveling Christmas: Pagan Influences and Christian Adoption
  4. Christmas Celebration in Modern Times: A Tapestry of Tradition and Joy

The Calendar of 354: Uncovering the Earliest Evidence of Christmas in Rome
Image Source: Google, Christmas Gift Group

Christmas through the Centuries: Joyous Traditions and Celebrations Unveiled

The roots of Christmas celebrations can be found in earlier traditions of Roman and European festivals that marked the end of the harvest and the midwinter festivities.

While Christmas initially began to be observed in Rome around 336, it took several centuries (until the ninth century) for it to evolve into a major Christian festival. Over time, it grew in significance and popularity, eventually becoming one of the most important celebrations in Christianity. Christmas Day itself is a joyous occasion that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, who is revered as the Messiah and the Son of God in Christian mythology.

During Christmas, people come together with their families and friends to participate in various traditions. Exchanging gifts, sharing special meals, and decorating Christmas trees are common practices that symbolize love, joy, and generosity. 

In England, Christmas celebrations start early, with decorations typically adorning homes from mid-November. Lights, leaves, and beautifully adorned Christmas trees create a festive atmosphere. The country observes December 25th and 26th as national holidays, allowing ample time for families to come together and celebrate.

Christmas hymns started in the fourth century, and carols began in the 13th century. The earliest Nativity hymn, "Jesus refulsit omnium" or "Jesus, Light of All the Nations," was written by St. Hilary of Poitiers who died in 368. Carols originally referred to lively dances and weren't strictly Christmas-related. St. Francis of Assisi, in 1223, created the first nativity scene and sang carols. By the 14th century, carols became part of secular Christmas traditions. The earliest known carols date from 15th-century mystery plays, like the popular "Coventry Carol." Carols were passed down in the common language, not Latin, and some, now lost, were humorous or playful.

The Calendar of 354: Uncovering the Earliest Evidence of Christmas in Rome
A Merry Christmas Postcard

From Saturnalia to Christmas: The Evolution of Midwinter Celebrations

The Roman Empire conquered Britain and other parts of Europe from the second century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. During this time, they suppressed the older seasonal customs practiced by the Celts and other groups. As a result, many traditional midwinter celebrations in today's Western cultures have influences from the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia.

The Christian holiday of Christmas, in particular, has adopted numerous traditions from the ancient Roman festival. One such tradition is the time of year when Christmas is celebrated. The Bible does not provide a specific date for Jesus' birth, though some theologians believe it was likely in the spring based on references to shepherds and sheep in the Nativity story.

The first recorded celebration of Christmas took place on December 25, 336. Pope Julius I was the bishop of Rome from February 6, 337, until his death on April 12, 352. He played an important role in asserting the authority of the pope over the Arian Eastern bishops. Additionally, he officially designated December 25 as the recognized birth date of Jesus. This timing allowed them to incorporate the holiday with Saturnalia and other popular pagan midwinter traditions. It was a way to merge Christian beliefs with existing cultural practices, creating a unified celebration.

Unraveling Christmas: Pagan Influences and Christian Adoption

During the initial three centuries of Christianity, people didn't celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. Instead, they observed two major holidays: Epiphany on January 6, marking the arrival of the Magi after Jesus' birth, and Easter, which commemorated Jesus' resurrection. Christmas as a distinct celebration for Jesus' birth only began to be widely recognized later.

However, it is unlikely that Jesus was actually born on December 25. The Bible does not specify his exact birth date, and the Nativity story contains conflicting clues. The decision to celebrate Christmas on December 25 was likely influenced by the desire to align with existing pagan festivals honoring Saturn and Mithra. This made it easier for Rome's pagan population to accept Christianity as the official religion of the empire.

In this context, the term "pagan" refers to the religious practices and beliefs that were prevalent before the spread of Christianity. The specific pagans mentioned are those who celebrated festivals honoring Saturn (the Roman god of agriculture) and Mithra (the Persian god of light). These festivals were part of the pre-Christian religious traditions that existed in the Roman Empire at the time.

Over the centuries, the celebration of Christmas spread throughout the Western world. However, many Christians still considered Epiphany and Easter as more important. In fact, some groups, like the Puritans in colonial New England, even banned the observance of Christmas due to its perceived pagan associations. In the early days of the United States, Christmas was considered a British custom and fell out of favor after the American Revolution. Christmas did not attain the status of a federal holiday until 1870.

Today, Christmas is widely celebrated, but its traditions and significance have evolved over time. From its roots in pagan festivals to its incorporation into Christian observance, Christmas continues to be a cherished holiday with diverse customs around the world.

The Spread of the Christmas Tradition:

With the establishment of December 25th as the official date for Christmas celebration in Rome, the tradition began to spread throughout the Christian world. The influence of the Roman Catholic Church, with Rome as its center, played a crucial role in popularizing the Christmas celebration. Over time, the customs and practices associated with Christmas, such as nativity scenes, caroling, and the exchange of gifts, evolved and spread across different cultures, enriching the holiday's diversity.

Christmas Celebration in Modern Times: A Tapestry of Tradition and Joy

Global Festivities:

In todays interconnected world, Christmas is celebrated on a global scale, transcending borders and cultural boundaries. While the core religious significance remains, the holiday has acquired unique regional flavors and customs. From the joyful festivities in Europe to the vibrant parades in Latin America, and the harmonious caroling in North America, the modern Christmas celebration is a testament to the rich diversity of human traditions.

Decorations and Illuminations:

One of the most visible aspects of modern Christmas celebrations is the elaborate decorations that adorn homes, streets, and public spaces. Christmas trees, adorned with lights, ornaments, and tinsel, take center stage in many households. In addition, colorful wreaths, garlands, and nativity scenes create a festive atmosphere. Cities dazzle with extravagant light displays, transforming streets into enchanting wonderlands that captivate the imagination.

Gift-Giving and Generosity:

The tradition of exchanging gifts during Christmas has deep historical roots. In modern times, gift-giving has become not only a way to express love and appreciation but also a symbol of generosity and goodwill. Today, people carefully select presents for their loved ones, seeking to bring joy and create lasting memories. The act of giving extends beyond family and friends, as many engage in charitable endeavors, donating to those in need and spreading the spirit of compassion.

The Calendar of 354: Uncovering the Earliest Evidence of Christmas in Rome

Carol Singers

Culinary Delights:

Christmas is a time when culinary traditions take center stage, with feasts and delicacies specific to each culture. Traditional Christmas meals vary widely across the globe, from roasted turkeys and hams in North America to elaborate seafood spreads in Mediterranean countries. Festive treats such as gingerbread cookies, fruitcakes, and yule logs add a touch of sweetness to the season. The joy of cooking and sharing meals with loved ones fosters a sense of togetherness and creates cherished moments.

Music and Carols:

Music plays a vital role in modern Christmas celebrations, evoking nostalgia and spreading cheer. Traditional carols, both religious and secular, fill the airwaves and community gatherings. Choirs and individuals come together to joyfully sing hymns and festive songs, creating an atmosphere of harmony and unity. Modern reinterpretations of classic carols and the emergence of new compositions ensure that the sounds of Christmas continue to evolve and resonate with generations to come.

Family Traditions and Bonding:

Christmas is often a time when families gather, strengthening bonds and creating cherished memories. From decorating the tree together to preparing special meals, families engage in traditions that are passed down through generations. Whether it's watching beloved holiday films, playing games, or attending religious services, these shared experiences foster a sense of belonging and create a warm and loving atmosphere.

Embracing Modern Technology:

In the digital age, technology has become an integral part of Christmas celebrations. Social media platforms allow people to share their festive experiences with friends and family, no matter the distance. Virtual gatherings via video calls bring loved ones together, even when physically apart. Online shopping and personalized e-cards have transformed the way gifts are selected and exchanged, making the process more convenient and accessible.


In finale, the celebration of Christmas on December 25th has a rich and diverse history that spans centuries and continents. While the exact date of Jesus' birth remains uncertain, it was during the 4th century that December 25th became associated with his birth in Rome. Over time, Christmas evolved into a major Christian festival, incorporating traditions from earlier Roman and European festivals.

Today, Christmas is celebrated worldwide, with unique regional customs and traditions. It is a time of joy, generosity, and togetherness, marked by decorations, gift-giving, culinary delights, music, and the strengthening of family bonds. As technology advances, it continues to shape the modern celebration of Christmas, connecting people across distances and enhancing the festive experience.