Reshaping the Region: The Dynamic Legacy of the First Balkan War

Territorial Turmoil: Consequences of the First Balkan War

The First Balkan War, which took place from October 1912 to May 1913, was a turning point in the history of Southeast Europe. This conflict, involving a complex network of alliances, rivalries, and territorial disputes among the Balkan states and the declining Ottoman Empire, redesigned the geopolitical landscape of the region. The war marked the beginning of the end for Ottoman control in the Balkans and set the stage for further conflicts and power struggles in the years to come.

The First Balkan War had terrible consequences for the Ottoman Empire. They lost 83% of their European territories and 69% of their European population. As a consequence of the First Balkan War, it is estimated that between 632,000 and 1,500,000 Turkish and Muslim civilians lost their lives, while 400,000 to 813,000 became refugees. Additionally, over 120,000 Albanians were killed, and between 60,000 and 300,000 were exiled from Old Serbia.

Ottoman in Balkan Wars

The Balkan League, made up of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece, captured and divided most of the remaining Ottoman territories in Europe. The war also led to the formation of an independent Albania, which caused dissatisfaction among the Serbs.

During the conflict, many civilians, primarily Muslim Turks, suffered critically. They were either killed or forced to flee their homes. The Ottoman army, which was disorganized and politically cracked, was unable to protect or move away the civilians from the war zone. This left them vulnerable to the invading armies of the Balkan League. The exact number of civilian casualties is debated, but the war significantly altered the demographic makeup of the Balkan region. In this article, we will explore the causes, key events, and consequences of the First Balkan War.

Causes of the First Balkan War:

The root causes of the First Balkan War can be sketched back to the declining consequence of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of nationalism among the Balkan states. As the Ottoman Empire faded, the Balkan nations, including Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece, sought to proclaim their independence and expand their territories. Nationalist ideas, fueled by a shared desire for statehood and the liberation of fellow ethnic members under Ottoman rule, created an explosive atmosphere in the region.

Balkan War

The spark that burned the war came in the form of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, which overthrew the autocratic rule of Sultan Abdulhamid II and promised a new era of constitutional government in the Ottoman Empire. The revolution initially raised hopes for the resolve of the Balkan question peacefully. However, the policies of the Young Turks, which aimed to centralize power in Istanbul and limit the goals of the Balkan nations, only intensified tensions.

Key Events of the First Balkan War:

From the Crimea to the Balkans: Russia's Grand Geopolitical Vision

After the Crimean War (1853–1856), Russia understood that the other major powers were determined about blocking its direct access to the Mediterranean Basin. In response, Russia crafted an ambitious plan for an indirect expansion, focusing on creating allied states in the Balkan Peninsula under its influence.

Recognizing the resistance to direct Mediterranean access, Russia opted for a strategy of building alliances and friendships in the Balkans. The objective was to establish states sympathetic to Russian interests, providing a strategic foothold in this crucial region.

Balkan Regions Map

This post-Crimean War plan reflects Russia's broader geopolitical goals, indicating a shift toward indirect methods of expanding influence. The subsequent formation of the Balkan League in 1912, including Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria, exemplifies the execution of Russia's earlier strategy. Through alliances in the Balkans, Russia sought a friendly sphere of influence, ensuring a strategic presence despite challenges posed by the Great Powers after the Crimean War.

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The Balkan League Formation: 

United by the common objective of freeing their fellow ethnic kin from Ottoman rule, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece formed the Balkan League in 1912. The alliance aimed to divide the Ottoman territories in the Balkans among themselves, but internal rivalries and conflicting territorial claims loomed over the alliance.

The Balkan Offensive: 

In October 1912, the Balkan League launched a coordinated offensive against the Ottoman Empire. The combined forces of the alliance made significant gains, capturing Adrianople (now Edirne) and Thessaloniki, and advancing deep into Ottoman territory.

Young Turk Revolution

The Treaty of London: 

The Treaty of London, signed in 1913, was an agreement among the Balkan states and the Great Powers (United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) to settle the territorial disputes that arose from the First Balkan War. The treaty aimed to redraw the borders in the region and determine the allocation of captured territories.

However, the Turkish delegate was not present at the negotiations for several reasons. Firstly, the Ottoman Empire, which represented the Turkish interests, was not directly involved in the Treaty of London discussions. The empire had suffered significant losses in the First Balkan War and was in a weakened state. As a result, its influence and participation in the treaty were limited.

Additionally, the Balkan states involved in the negotiations had conflicting interests and grievances against the Ottoman Empire. They sought to assert their independence and expand their territories at the expense of the empire. Consequently, the Turkish delegate's absence reflected the exclusion of the Ottoman Empire from the decision-making process.

Consequences of the First Balkan War:

The consequences of the First Balkan Wars were significant and had lasting impacts on the geopolitical landscape of the Balkan Peninsula, contributing to larger conflicts.

The Treaty of London was signed on May 30, 1913, to end the First Balkan War. According to the treaty, the Ottoman Empire gave up all its land in Europe to the Balkan League, except for Albania. The specific line was from Enos on the Aegean Sea to Midia on the Black Sea. The treaty also declared Albania as an independent state.

However, there were disagreements over the division of certain regions. Serbia and Greece had occupied most of the territory designated for the new Albanian state and were reluctant to withdraw their troops. Bulgaria, having unresolved disputes with Serbia and Greece, was prepared to use force to resolve the issues. They began moving their military from Eastern Thrace to the disputed regions.

London Conference 1912-1913

To counter Bulgaria's actions, Greece and Serbia settled their differences and formed a military alliance against Bulgaria on May 1, 1913, even before the Treaty of London was finalized. They further solidified their cooperation with a treaty of "mutual friendship and protection" on June 1, 1913. These events set the stage for the Second Balkan War.

In the Balkan Wars, many people suffered, but the ones who suffered the most were the Muslims, especially the Turks. Professor McCarthy mentioned that in the areas the Ottoman Empire lost, about 27% of the Muslims, mostly Turks, died. This was the highest civilian death rate in any recent European war.


The First Balkan War was a transformative conflict that manifested a turning point in the history of Southeast Europe. It devastated the confidence of Ottoman strength and set in motion a series of events that would lead to further conflicts and power struggles in the region. The war's consequences, including territorial rearrangements and the decline of the Ottoman Empire, continue to shape the Balkans to this day. Understanding what happened in the First Balkan War helps us grasp how the region developed and the challenges it still faces.