Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa

Victoria is the biggest waterfall globally and is famous for its unique geology and land-shaping features. Its extraordinary beauty comes from the mist, spray, and rainbows it creates. This natural wonder situated on the Zambezi River, forming the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, ranks among the world's most captivating attractions. Its stunning beauty, immense power, and cultural relevance enchant visitors worldwide. In 1989, Victoria Falls attained World Heritage status, notable for its universal significance. This article delves into the magic of Victoria Falls, uncovering its origin, location, dimensions, environmental impact, geopolitical significance, the role of tourism, and other fascinating aspects.

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa
Image Source: GoogleVictoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya

💻  Table of Contents:

Source and origin of the naming: A Tribute to Queen Victoria

The Zambezi River, starting in the northwest of Zambia, is the main water source for Victoria Falls. It flows over 2,700 kilometers (1,700 miles) across six countries, culminating in the stunning Victoria Falls. These falls are found on the border of Zambia's Southern Province and Zimbabwe's Matabeleland North Province.

Victoria Falls got its name from the famous Scottish explorer David Livingstone who was pioneer Christian missionary with the London Missionary Society. He named the falls after Queen Victoria of England in the 19th century. Local people, like the Tonga, called the falls "Mosi-oa-Tunya," which means "the smoke that thunders." The falls have been a part of the region's history for a long time, even before Livingstone's visit.

Victoria Falls is massive, spanning 1.7 kilometers (1.1 miles), and it's the biggest waterfall in the world. The power of the falls is amazing, as more than 500 million liters (132 million gallons) of water rush into the gorge every minute when it's flowing strongly. This amazing natural show gives off an intense energy that can be felt by anyone who gets to see it.

A Symphony of Nature: The Victoria Falls and the Rainforest

In nature's warm embrace, Victoria Falls and the rainforest unite in a beautiful dance. The mist blows tall trees, blending sky and greenery. Under the forest's calming shade and the melodies of singing birds, visitors discover deep peace. This magical pairing of the powerful falls and the peaceful rainforest creates a captivating experience for all who visit, where nature's strength increases its beauty and calmness, welcoming everyone to this charming haven.

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa
Victoria falls waterfall zambezi

A Safari Paradise: Animal Diversity at Victoria Falls Parks

Two small national parks are located near Victoria Falls: Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park covers 66 square kilometers, and Victoria Falls National Park is 23 square kilometers. Nearby to Victoria Falls National Park on the southern bank is Zambezi National Park, which extends 40 kilometers along the river. Wildlife can freely move between these Zimbabwean parks and reach areas like Matetsi Safari Area, Kazuma Pan National Park, and Hwange National Park to the south.

The national parks near Victoria Falls have many animals. You can find elephants, buffalo, giraffes, zebras, and different kinds of antelopes. Sometimes, you might see lions, leopards, and cheetahs. Monkeys and baboons are common. In the river above the falls, you can find many hippos and crocodiles. During the dry season, African elephants cross the river at certain points.

You can also spot animals like klipspringers, honey badgers, lizards, and clawless otters in the gorges. But what's really special is the 35 kinds of birds of prey, like the Taita falcon, Verreaux's eagle, peregrine falcon, and augur buzzard, that breed there. Above the falls, you'll see herons, African fish eagles, and many other water birds.

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa
Victoria falls from a helicopter

Below Victoria Falls, there are 39 kinds of fish, but above the falls, there are 84 different types. The falls act like a natural wall that separates the upper and lower parts of the Zambezi River. It's like a line that the fish can't cross, so you find different fish on each side.

Victoria Falls: A Geopolitical Powerhouse

Beyond its natural magnificence, Victoria Falls serves as a crucial geopolitical resource, powering energy, diplomacy, and economic development in both Zambia and Zimbabwe. Its significant influence on regional diplomacy, spanning power generation, economic collaboration, and cultural symbolism, is truly remarkable.

Hydroelectric Power:

Victoria Falls, aside from its natural and cultural significance, plays a pivotal role in hydroelectric power generation for Zambia and Zimbabwe. The most notable power station, the Kariba Dam, has a total capacity of 1,626 MW, shared equally between the two nations. These facilities significantly contribute to electricity production in both countries.

Zambia relies on the Kariba Dam for nearly 50% of its electricity, while Zimbabwe depends on it for approximately 60% of its power. Power interconnections among neighboring countries within the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) promote energy security and economic growth. This abundant and relatively low-cost electricity supports various sectors; including industry, commerce, and domestic consumption, further enhancing the region's economic prospects and potential for electricity exports.

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa
A crocodile emerging in Zambezi river

Regional Cooperation:

Victoria Falls symbolizes regional collaboration between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The joint management and use of the Zambezi River's resources, including the falls, have strengthened bilateral ties and cooperative endeavors to harness the river's potential for the mutual benefit of both countries.

Economic Impact:

The tourism industry centered on Victoria Falls plays a vital role in the economic expansion and progress of the region. The falls draw a substantial number of international tourists, leading to job opportunities, income generation, and infrastructure improvement. The tourism sector offers employment prospects, particularly in hospitality, transportation, and related services, benefiting local communities and contributing to the broader economy.

Trade and Transportation:

The Zambezi River, supplying water to Victoria Falls, serves as a vital transport route, fostering trade and commerce between Zambia and Zimbabwe. The river facilitates the movement of goods, offering access to landlocked countries in the region and bolstering trade networks.

Importance of Tourism & Historical Significance:

Victoria Falls is a magnet for tourists, attracting adventure seekers, nature lovers, and cultural enthusiasts also. The falls offer a wide range of activities and experiences that appeal to diverse interests. Tourists can enjoy exciting river rafting, take a helicopter ride over the falls, or go on a relaxed cruise at sunset on the Zambezi River. The surrounding national parks, such as Mosi-oa-Tunya and Victoria Falls National Park, provide opportunities for wildlife viewing, including sightings of elephants, giraffes, zebras, and a rich variety of bird species.

Victoria Falls: A Majestic Wonder at the Heart of Southern Africa
Victoria Falls 2012

In the late 1990s, Victoria Falls attracted nearly 400,000 annual visitors, with expectations of over a million in the coming decade. The falls see more local Zimbabwean and Zambian visitors than international tourists due to affordable access by bus and train. Travelers can take day trips across the border to view the falls from both sides, but visa costs fluctuate (typically between US$50 and $80).

The famous "Armchair" or "Devil's Pool" offers a unique swim right at the falls' edge during specific river flow conditions. While Zimbabwe historically drew more tourists, political tensions led to a decline, contrasting with Zambia's thriving visitor industry. Rapid development has prompted concerns about the falls' World Heritage Site status, waste management, and environmental oversight.

For the local communities, especially the Tonga people, Victoria Falls has strong cultural and historical importance. The Tonga people deeply connect with the falls, viewing them as sacred and linked to their ancestors' spirits. The falls are also tied to the legendary Mosi-oa-Tunya, known as the "Smoke that Thunders," a name that perfectly describes the breathtaking nature of this natural marvel.

Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Practices:

Protecting the natural environment around Victoria Falls is a top priority. Zambia and Zimbabwe are working on conservation to safeguard the ecosystem and preserve the falls' beauty for the generations to come. Sustainable tourism methods, like responsible wildlife watching, projects to restore the ecosystem, and programs that involve the local community, are vital for ensuring the long-term sustainability of this incredible natural treasure.

In February 2020, National Geographic warned that Victoria Falls is under threat due to rising temperatures and changing weather patterns. In this regard, it is the sole responsibility of the relevant authorities to take appropriate actions following international standards.


Victoria Falls, with its tremendous beauty, rich cultural significance, and remarkable contributions to energy, diplomacy, and local economies, stands as a natural wonder of global importance. Drawing visitors from near and far, this iconic waterfall represents the power of nature and the bonds it forges between nations. Its significance as both a breathtaking natural wonder and a symbol of cooperation underscores the profound impact that natural landmarks can have on our world.