The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion

The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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Context for the Conflict:

The British takeover of Egypt, also referred to as the Anglo-Egyptian War, took place in 1882. It involved Egyptian and Sudanese forces led by Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom. Besides, this conflict had profound consequences for Egypt, the Middle East, and British imperialism. This event marked the conclusion of a nationalist rebellion against Khedive Tewfik Pasha. This article delves into the historical context, the reasons behind the invasion, British military innovations, and the lasting impact of the conquest on Egypt's history.

In 1881, Egypt found itself in turmoil. An Egyptian army officer named Ahmed ‘Urabi (also known as Arabi Pasha) led a rebellion, seizing control from Tewfik Pasha, the leader of Egypt and Sudan. His discontent stemmed from the fact that Egyptian soldiers received lower pay compared to their European counterparts, among other concerns.

Then, in January 1882, both the British and French governments dispatched a letter to Egypt, expressing their recognition of Tewfik Pasha as the legitimate leader. Later, in May, British and French warships arrived off the coast of Alexandria.

On June 11th, a significant altercation erupted in Alexandria, resulting in the tragic death of 50 Europeans. Colonel ‘Urabi instructed his forces to cease hostilities, but many Europeans decided to leave the city. Instead, ‘Urabi's army initiated fortifications to strengthen the city's defenses. The French warships departed and returned to France.

Subsequently, in July, the British conveyed an important message to Egypt, which was met with refusal. Consequently, the British dispatched their warships to Alexandria, commencing a bombardment of the city on July 11th, lasting for approximately 10 and a-half hours.

The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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Reasons behind the Annexation:

The British government's decision to send a fleet of ships to the coast of Alexandria remains a subject of historical debate. Some scholars, like Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, argue that the invasion aimed to quell the perceived anarchy of the ‘Urabi Revolt and secure British control over the Suez Canal, ensuring a vital shipping route to the Indian Ocean.

However, A.G. Hopkins challenges this perspective, citing historical documents that suggest there was no imminent danger to the Suez Canal from ‘Urabi's movement. Instead, he argues that British Prime Minister William Gladstone's cabinet was motivated by protecting the interests of British bondholders with investments in Egypt and by the pursuit of domestic political popularity. British investments in Egypt had surged, partly due to the Khedive's debt from constructing the Suez Canal. Close ties existed between the British government and the economic sector, further influencing their decision to intervene.



John Galbraith and Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid-Marsot present a similar argument, focusing on how individuals within the British government bureaucracy manipulated the situation to present invasion as a favorable option. They describe how Edward Malet, the British consul general in Egypt, portrayed the Egyptian government as unstable, hoping to intimidate Egypt with a show of force. Admiral Beauchamp Seymour's exaggerations about the danger posed by Urabi's forces in his telegrams to the British government also hastened the bombardment of Alexandria.


Urabi Rebellion to British Occupation:

In the late 19th century, Egypt experienced a significant turmoil known as the Urabi Rebellion, which eventually resulted in British control over the nation. This complex historical episode spread-out as a series of interconnected events.

The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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The background to these events was Egypt's dire financial situation, largely for expensive projects such as the construction of the Suez Canal. In 1876, Egypt declared bankruptcy and required foreign assistance, allowing both British and French control over its finances to settle increasing debts. Khedive Isma'il, who had been the ruler, was replaced by his son, Tawfiq, who accepted foreign administer of Egypt's economic affairs.

The root causes of the rebellion can be traced to escalating tensions within Egypt. Tawfiq's actions, including the execution of a law that limited Egyptians' military service and career prospects, contributed to growing discontent among the Egyptian. In an attempt to control the unrest, Tawfiq appointed a native Egyptian colonel, Ahmad 'Urabi, as his war minister. 'Urabi, however, went further in demanding restrictions on the khedive's powers and advocating for Egyptian self-governance.

The rebellion itself began when 'Urabi and his supporters, on September 9, 1881, marched to Tawfiq's palace, demanding a representative government. In response, Tawfiq unwillingly agreed to the establishment of a constitution and an elected legislature, marking a brief period of Egyptian self-governance. However, this development provoked fluctuating international responses, with European powers and the Ottoman sultan supporting Tawfiq, while the British expressed concerns about potential debt refusal and violence.

Tensions escalated further when British warships patrolled at the port of Alexandria, intensifying the already flimsy situation. On June 11, 1882, violent anti-European riots erupted in Alexandria, Egypt. Fearing for their safety, European residents quickly left the city. At the same time, the Egyptian 'Urabist army began fortifying and arming the port, making the situation more tense.

After giving a warning to stop these military preparations, the British fleet acted alone, launching a relentless 10½-hour bombardment of the city. The French didn't join in this attack.

In the aftermath of the bombardment and amidst escalating unrest, Khedive Tewfik Pasha extended an invitation for British assistance to help restore his rule. The British response to Tewfik Pasha's request marked the prelude to a full-scale British invasion of Egypt, setting the stage for the Battle of Tell El Kebir that occurred on September 13, 1882. In this battle, Egyptian forces, commanded by Ahmed ʻUrabi, faced off against a British army led by Garnet Wolseley. This battle marked the critical moment in the Anglo-Egyptian War, ultimately resulting in a victory for the British forces.

The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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As a result, British influence in Egypt solidified during this period, shaping not only the course of the war but also the future of Egypt's governance. Finally, 'Urabi's constitutional movement effectively came to an end, and the period from 1882 to 1914 became known as the Veiled Protectorate. This means that Britain set up a protectorate, which is a form of colonial control where a stronger nation maintains some level of authority over a weaker nation while permitting it to retain a level of independence.

During the Veiled Protectorate, although Tawfiq was the nominal ruler, British commissioners, most notably Lord Cromer, wielded substantial influence over Egyptian policies. The Urabi Rebellion thus set the stage for British occupation, reshaping Egypt's governance for several decades.

Though, Egypt technically remained a part of the Ottoman Empire until November 5, 1914. This changed when the British Empire declared that it was protecting Egypt and established it as a British protectorate because the Ottoman Empire joined the First World War on the side of the Central Powers in October and November 1914.

Even though the UK declared Egypt's independence in 1922, the British military maintained considerable influence in Egypt until 1936. During this period, Egypt became a crucial hub for trade and business in the region. Egypt continued under British power until 1952, with the last British troops leaving in 1956.


The Suez Canal: Britain's Gateway to Empire-Building: 

Britain benefited from the Suez Canal in several significant ways:

The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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Trade and Transportation: The Suez Canal provided a much shorter and more efficient maritime route between Europe and Asia, significantly reducing the travel time and costs for ships. This facilitated faster trade and transportation of goods, particularly vital for Britain's colonial interests in India and Southeast Asia.

Global Trade Hub: The Suez Canal turned Egypt into a vital global trade hub. British ships, carrying goods to and from its colonies and trade partners in Asia and the East, could now pass through the canal, avoiding the lengthy and perilous journey around the southern tip of Africa.

Strategic Control: Controlling the Suez Canal gave Britain a strategic advantage in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea. It allowed for quicker deployment of British naval and military assets to protect its interests in the region, including its colonies.

Colonial Connectivity: The canal enhanced Britain's ability to maintain and control its vast colonial empire, as it facilitated the movement of troops, supplies, and administrators to and from its colonies in Africa and Asia.

Economic Influence: British investors had significant financial stakes in the Suez Canal Company, which was responsible for operating and maintaining the canal. This allowed Britain to influence the canal's operation and ensure its interests were protected.

Political Leverage: Britain's control and influence over the Suez Canal provided it with political leverage over Egypt and other countries using the canal. This leverage could be used to secure favorable treaties, concessions, or diplomatic agreements.

Strategic Military Position: The Suez Canal was a vital military asset during times of conflict. During both World Wars, it served as a crucial maritime link for Britain and its allies, enabling them to quickly move troops and supplies to the Middle East and beyond.

In summary, the Suez Canal played a pivotal role in Britain's economic, strategic, and colonial interests by providing a shorter trade route, enhancing its global reach, and giving it significant influence in the region.


The Anglo-Egyptian War: A Tale of Ahmed Urabi’s Rebellion
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British Military Innovations: During the campaign, the British introduced several military innovations:

Railway: The 8th Railway Company Royal Engineers operated trains, carrying supplies and troops while repairing track. This logistical support played a crucial role in the British campaign's success.

Telegraph: Telegraph lines were laid along the Sweet Water Canal, facilitating communication. Messages were sent to coordinate military movements and report victories, including one to Queen Victoria.


Conclusion:

The Anglo-Egyptian War was marked a significant chapter in the history of Egypt and the British Empire. It was a complex conflict driven by imperial interests, regional tensions, and Egyptian aspirations for independence. Ultimately, the war resulted in the establishment of a British protectorate over Egypt, which lasted until 1952 when Egypt gained full sovereignty. The war's legacy continues to shape the modern political landscape of Egypt and the broader Middle East, underscoring the enduring impact of colonialism on the region's history.

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